Europe's journey from antiquity to modernity
During the Middle Ages in Europe, the ruling and dominant ideas were derived from theology. However, with the rediscovery of philosophies as well as emergence of social sciences and humanities, people began to be more pluralistic in their methods of reasoning and able to probe their societies and the world at large '( both physical and social )' with more than one concern and perspective. Finally, the old idea that one cure'-all book could answer all questions and solve all problems ended. In a modern society, 'even scientists can be questioned or challenged, in rational and civil ways, for the betterment of the human condition, as no human being is divine or'/ and can claim the monopoly of truth.