Ideational dimension in West's transformation
Numerous material as well as ideational forces were, in an almost full-spectrum process of interactivities, responsible for the revolutionary movements and transformation of Americas and Europe. Tom Paine''s biography and writings can assist younger students of world history to comprehend the 'ideational source of the emergence of modern West. Tom Paine was certainly a republican, but he was not an atheist even though he critiqued religion openly in a deeply religious society. Why? Tom Paine, of course, was a critic of Britain's MP, orator and political philosopher Edmund Burke who, in a publication titled 'Reflections On The Revolution In France, 'assailed the mass revolts in France earlier. Like it or hate it, the modernist and liberal revolutions in Europe and Americas in the late 18th and early 19th century initiated the historic process of liberation of the West from feudal and superstitious reign.